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Eye Anatomy

Eye Anatomy

CORNEA

Transparent front segment of the eye that covers iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, and provides most of an eye's optical power.

PUPIL

Variable-sized, circular opening in center of iris; it appears as a black circle and it regulates the amount of light that enters the eye.

IRIS

Pigmented tissue lying behind cornea that (1) gives color to the eye, and (2) controls amount of light entering the eye by varying size of black pupillary opening; separates the anterior chamber from the posterior chamber.

LENS

Natural lens of eye; transparent intraocular tissue that helps bring rays of light to focus on the retina.

RETINA

Part of the eye that converts what we see into electrical impulses sent along the optic nerve for transmission back to the brain. Consists of many named layers that include rods and cones.

MACULA

Small, specialized central area of the retina responsible for the sharpest central vision.

VITREOUS

Transparent, colorless, gelatinous filling; in the rear two-thirds of the interior of the eyeball, between the lens and the retina.

OPTIC NERVE

Largest sensory nerve of the eye; carries impulses for sight from retina to brain.

SCLERA

The white of the eye; a protective fibrous layer that is the outer covering of the eyeball except for the part that is the cornea.

CILIARY BODY

A muscular ring under the surface of the eyeball; helps the eye focus by changing the len’s shape and also produces aqueous humor.

CHOROID

The vascular layer between the sclera and the retina; the blood vessels in the choroid help provide oxygen and nutrients to the eye.

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